# Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Models

SAM includes models for the following kinds of CSP systems: Parabolic trough, molten salt and direct steam power towers, molten salt and direct steam linear Fresnel, dish Stirling, a generic CSP model, integrated solar combined cycle. References for the solar process heat models are listed separately below.

Mehos, M.; Price, H.; Cable, R.; Kearney, D.; Kelly, B.; Kolb, G.; Morse, F. (2020). *Concentrating Solar Power Best Practices Study*. 257 pp. NREL Report No. TP-550-75763. (PDF 4.5 MB)

SolarPACES Guideline for Bankable STE Yield Assessment, International Energy Agency.

Kesseli, D.; Wagner, M.; Guédez, R.; Turchi, C. (2018). *CSP-Plant Modeling Guidelines and Compliance of the System Advisor Model (SAM). *SolarPACES Conference Paper. 8pp. NREL Report No. CP-5500-72183. (PDF 300 KB)

## Physical Trough Model

Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P. (2011). Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model. 124 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-51825. (PDF 3.7 MB)

Turchi, C.; Neises, T. (2015). Parabolic Trough Solar-Thermal Output Model Decoupled from SAM Power Block Assumptions. Milestone report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. PDF 542 KB)

## Power Tower

Feierabend, L. (M.S., 2009). Thermal Model Development and Simulation of Cavity-Type Solar Central Receiver Systems. University of Wisconsin-Madison. (ZIP 5.0 MB)

Hamilton, W.; Newman, A.; Wagner, M.; Braun, R. (2020). Off-design performance of molten salt-driven Rankine cycles and its impact on the optimal dispatch of concentrating solar power systems. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol 220 September 2020, pp.

Kistler, B. (1986). A User's Manual for DELSOL3: A Computer Code for Calculating the Optical Performance and Optimal System Design for Solar Thermal Central Receiver Plants. Sandia Report No. SAND86-8018. (PDF 10 MB) *SAM 2015.1.30 is the most recent version of SAM to use DELSOL3 for solar field optmization. Newer versions of SAM use SolarPILOT.*

Neises, T.; Wagner, M. (2012). Simulation of Direct Steam Power Tower Concentrated Solar Plant. ASME SE 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability July 23-26, 2012. *SAM 2020.2.29 is the most recent version of SAM to include the direct steam power tower model.*

Wagner, M.; Wendelin, T. (2018). SolarPILOT: A power tower solar field layout and characterization tool. Solar Energy Vol 171 September 2018, pp 185-196.

Wagner, M.; Newman, A.; Hamiltion, W.; Braun, R. (2017). Optimized Dispatch in a First-principles Concentrating Solar Power Production Model. Applied Energy Vol. 203 October 2017, pp. 959-971.

Wagner, M. (M.S. 2008). Simulation and Predictive Performance Modeling of Utility-Scale Central Receiver System Power Plants. University of Wisconsin-Madison. (ZIP 32.3 MB)

## Linear Fresnel

Wagner, M.; Zhu, G. (2012). A Direct-steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model. NREL Conference Paper CP-5500-55044. (PDF 647 KB)

Wagner, M. (2012). Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint. NREL Conference Paper CP-5500-54758. (PDF 726 KB)

Bachelier, C. (2012). SAM Linear Fresnel solar boiler model: Novatec Solar Boiler Sample File. See the presentation materials for the SAM Virtual Conference 2012 listed on the SAM Events page at https://sam.nrel.gov/events.html.

## Generic Solar System Model

Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G. (2011). Generic CSP Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model: Preprint. 10 pp. NREL Report No. CP-5500-52473. (PDF 729 KB)

## Solar Industrial Process Heat (IPH)

Kurup, P.; Turchi, C.; (2015). Initial Investigation into the Potential of CSP Industrial Process Heat for the Southwest United States. 78 pp. NREL/TP-6A20-64709. (PDF 5.3 MB)

## Integrated Solar Combined Cycle

*SAM 2018.11.11 is the most recent version of SAM to include the legacy integrated solar combined cycle model. This model is no longer being maintained.*

Turchi, C.; Ma, Z. (2014). Co-located Gas Turbine / Solar Thermal Hybrid Designs for Power Production. Renewable Energy, Vol 64, April 2014.

Zhu, G.; Nieses, T.; Turchi, C.; Bedillon, R. (2015). Thermodynamic Evaluation of Solar Integration into a Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plant. Renewable Energy, Vol 74 February, 2015.

## CSP Power Cycle Models

Hamilton T.; Newman, A.; Wagner. M.; Braun, R. (2020). Off-design Performance of Molten Salt-driven Rankine Cycles and its Impact on the Optimal Dispatch of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol 20.

Neises, T.; Boyd, M. (DRAFT 2021). Description of SAM's CSP User-defined Power Cycle Model. (PDF 235 KB) *The user-defined power cycle option is available as part of the physical trough, molten salt power tower, and molten salt linear Fresnel CSP models in SAM.*

### Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle Model

*SAM versions after SAM 2020.2.29 do not include a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) cycle model. An sCO2 cycle model is available as a separate model implemented in Python that can be used in conjunction with the sCO2 Cycle Integration macro in SAM to generate input data for SAM's User-defined Power Cycle model.*

Neises, Ty. (2020). Steady-state off-design modeling of the supercritical carbon dioxide recompression cycle for concentrating solar power applications with two-tank sensible-heat storage. Solar Energy, Vol 212, December 2020, pp 19-33.

Neises, Ty.; Turchi, C. (2019). Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Design and Configuration Optimization to Minimize Levelized Cost of Energy of Molten Salt Power Towers Operating at 650 °C. Solar Energy, Vol 181, March 2019, pp 27-36.

Neises, T.; Turchi, C. (2014). A Comparison of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations with an Emphasis on CSP Applications. Energy Procedia, Vol 49, pp 1187-1196. *This paper describes the legacy sCO2 model that was available in SAM 2020.2.29.*

## Thermal Energy Storage (TES)

Ma, Z.; Glatzmaier, G.; Wagner, M.; Neises, Ty. (2012). General Performance Metrics and Applications to Evaluate Various Thermal Energy Storage Technologies. ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Parts A and B. San Diego, California, USA, July 23–26, 2012

## Electric Thermal Energy Storage (ETES)

Neises, T.; Hamilton, B.; Martinek, J.; McTigue, J. (2022) Stand-alone and Hybrid Electric Thermal Energy Storage in the System Advisor Model. 51 pp. NREL/TP-5700-82989. (PDF 2.3 MB)

## CSP Modeling Approach

Dobos, A.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M. (2014). Advances in CSP Simulation Technology in the System Advisor Model. 7 pp. NREL/CP-6A20-61629.

## Empirical Trough (Based on Excelergy)

Price, H. (2003). *Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Simulation Model*. Proceedings of the ISEC 2003: International Solar Energy Conference, 15-18 March 2003, Kohala Coast, Hawaii. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. pp 665-673. NREL Report No. CP-550-34742. (PDF 548 KB)

## Dish Stirling

*SAM's Dish Stirling model is no longer being maintained. SAM 2020.2.29 is the most recent version to include this legacy model.*

Fraser, P. (M.S. 2008). Stirling Dish System Performance Prediction Model. University of Wisconsin-Madison. ZIP 1.8 MB)