Chemistry and Technology

DiOrio, N.; Dobos, A.; Janzou, S.; Nelson, A.; Lunstrom, B. (2015). Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM. 32 pp. NREL/TP-6A20-64641 (PDF 2.6 MB)

For general information about batteries and the one of the references used to develop this model, see Linden, D.; Reddy, T.; (2011). Linden's Handbook of Batteries. 4th edition. New York: McGraw Hill.

D'Agostino, R.; Baumann, L.; Damiano, A.; Boggasch, E. (2014). A Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Battery Model for Evaluation of Distributed Storage Implementation in Residential Energy Systems. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conservation. Vol 30 No 2 June 2015.


DiOrio, N.; Denholm, P.; Hobbs, W. (2020). A Model for Evaluating the Configuration and Dispatch of PV Plus Battery Power Plants. Applied Energy Vol 262 March 2020. This paper inlcudes a detailed description of the implementation of SAM's "automated dispach" option for front-of-meter batteries and an analysis case study using the option.

DiOrio, N.; Hobbs, W. (2018). Economic Dispatch for DC-connected Battery Systems on Large PV Plants. NREL/PR-6A20-72513. (PDF 653) These presentation slides provide a high-level description of how SAM's "automated dispatch" option for front-of-meter batteries works.

DiOrio, N. (2017). An Overview of the Automated Dispatch Controller Algorithms in SAM. NREL/TP-6A20-68614. (PDF 770 KB) This paper describes the peak shaving option for behind-the-meter batteries.

Fregosi, D.; Pilot, N.; Bolen, M.; Hobbs, W. (2023). An analysis of storage requirements and benefits of short-term forecasting for PV ramp rate mitigation. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics.

Mirletz, B.; Guittet, D. (2021). Heurestic Dispatch Based on Price Signals for Behind-the-Meter PV-Battery Systems in the System Advisor Model. NREL/CP-7A40-79575. (PDF 2.2 MB)

Battery Life

Smith, K.; Saxon, A.; Keyser, M.; Lundstrom, B.; Cao, Z.; Roc, A. (2017). Life Prediction Model for Grid-connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System. Presented at 2017 American Control Conference. (PDF 1.4 KB)

Spotnitz, R. (2002). Simulation of Capacity Fade in Lithium-ion Batteries. Journal of Power Sources. Vol 113 pp 72-80 2003.

Modeling and Case Studies

DiOrio, N.; Freeman, J., Blair, N. (2019). DC-connected Solar Plus Storage Modeling and Analysis for Behind-the-Meter Systems in SAM. Presented at 2018 WPEC-7 and 45th IEEE PVSC. NREL/PR-6A20-71779. (PDF 488 KB)

DiOrio, N.; Freeman, J.; Blair, N. (2018). DC-connected Solar Plus Storage Modeling and Analysis for Behind-The-Meter Systems in the System Advisor Model. NREL/CP-6A20-71636. (PDF 1.3 MB)

DiOrio, N.; Dobos, A.; Janzou, S. (2015). Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM. 22 pp. NREL/TP-6A20-64987 (PDF 550 KB)


Elgqvist, E.; Anderson, K.; Settle, E. (2018). Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems. 1 pp. NREL/FS-7A40-70384 (PDF 207 KB)