The SAM web site will be upgrading Monday, May 23 from 4:00-5:00pm (Denver/mountain time). 

After doing a major change to our infrastructure, we have found a minor issue that we have corrected but will need to reboot the web site for it to take affect.

To make it as convenient as possible, we have scheduled it for Monday, May 23rd at 4:00pm (mountain). The process takes 15-20 minutes, but the site will only be unavailable for a short time. However, your session information will be lost (eg if you're writing a post, what you have written could be lost). 

Chemistry and Technology

DiOrio, N.; Dobos, A.; Janzou, S.; Nelson, A.; Lunstrom, B. (2015). Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM. 32 pp. NREL/TP-6A20-64641 (PDF 2.6 MB)

For general information about batteries and the one of the references used to develop this model, see Linden, D.; Reddy, T.; (2011). Linden's Handbook of Batteries. 4th edition. New York: McGraw Hill.

D'Agostino, R.; Baumann, L.; Damiano, A.; Boggasch, E. (2014). A Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Battery Model for Evaluation of Distributed Storage Implementation in Residential Energy Systems. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conservation. Vol 30 No 2 June 2015.


DiOrio, N.; Denholm, P.; Hobbs, W. (2020). A Model for Evaluating the Configuration and Dispatch of PV Plus Battery Power Plants. Applied Energy Vol 262 March 2020. This paper inlcudes a detailed description of the implementation of SAM's "automated dispach" option for front-of-meter batteries and an analysis case study using the option.

DiOrio, N.; Hobbs, W. (2018). Economic Dispatch for DC-connected Battery Systems on Large PV Plants. NREL/PR-6A20-72513. (PDF 653) These presentation slides provide a high-level description of how SAM's "automated dispatch" option for front-of-meter batteries works.

DiOrio, N. (2017). An Overview of the Automated Dispatch Controller Algorithms in SAM. NREL/TP-6A20-68614. (PDF 770 KB) This paper describes the peak shaving option for behind-the-meter batteries.

Mirletz, B.; Guittet, D. (2021). Heurestic Dispatch Based on Price Signals for Behind-the-Meter PV-Battery Systems in the System Advisor Model. NREL/CP-7A40-79575. (PDF 2.2 MB)

Battery Life

Smith, K.; Saxon, A.; Keyser, M.; Lundstrom, B.; Cao, Z.; Roc, A. (2017). Life Prediction Model for Grid-connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System. Presented at 2017 American Control Conference. (PDF 1.4 KB)

Spotnitz, R. (2002). Simulation of Capacity Fade in Lithium-ion Batteries. Journal of Power Sources. Vol 113 pp 72-80 2003.

Modeling and Case Studies

DiOrio, N.; Freeman, J., Blair, N. (2019). DC-connected Solar Plus Storage Modeling and Analysis for Behind-the-Meter Systems in SAM. Presented at 2018 WPEC-7 and 45th IEEE PVSC. NREL/PR-6A20-71779. (PDF 488 KB)

DiOrio, N.; Freeman, J.; Blair, N. (2018). DC-connected Solar Plus Storage Modeling and Analysis for Behind-The-Meter Systems in the System Advisor Model. NREL/CP-6A20-71636. (PDF 1.3 MB)

DiOrio, N.; Dobos, A.; Janzou, S. (2015). Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM. 22 pp. NREL/TP-6A20-64987 (PDF 550 KB)


Elgqvist, E.; Anderson, K.; Settle, E. (2018). Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems. 1 pp. NREL/FS-7A40-70384 (PDF 207 KB)